Zinc and Prostate

Zinc and Prostate CancerProstate Cancer

Description

Diletta Garrou, Alice Montanaro

Introduction

The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide, with the greatest increases in the US. It is the most common cancer other than skin cancer among US men. The etiology of prostate cancer is poorly understood; age, family history, and race are among the few established risk factors. The human prostate gland is a complex organ comprised of different zones that have different embryological origin and different functional activities. The focus is the peripheral zone (70% of the gland) that is the major functional component. Most importantly, this is the major region of malignancy.

The primary function of the prostate gland is the production and secretion of prostatic fluid that contain high concentration of citrate, which ranges from ~40–150 mM as contrasted with ~0.2 mM citrate in blood plasma. The function of prostate citrate production is achieved by the activity of highly specialized glandular epithelial cells that have evolved for the capability to accumulate and secrete citrate, which we refer to as net citrate production (Zinc intake from supplements and diet and prostate cancer. 2009)

There are several lines of evidence that suggest that zinc may play an important and direct role in the prostate. Studies have found that total zinc levels in the prostate are 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Furthermore, adenocarcinoma cells taken from prostate tumors have lost their ability to amass zinc, whereas in normal prostate cells, zinc is highly concentrated intracellularly in glandular epithelium and inhibits mitochondria aconitase resulting in decreased citrate oxidase . The prevention of citrate oxidation by the prostate cells is the key relationship that is responsible for net citrate production. This metabolic effect has implications in altering energy metabolism and adenosine triphosphate production of prostate cells, such that lower zinc levels in prostate cells leads to a higher rate of citrate oxidation, which increases the available energy and has been proposed to contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor growth.
In contrast to these highly specialized prostate cells, most mammalian cells cannot survive if m-aconitase activity and citrate oxidation are inhibited as is evident from the toxic effects of the m-aconitase inhibitor, fluorocitrate.

It is now well established that citrate and zinc levels are markedly decreased in malignant versus normal prostate tissue. These biochemical changes occur early in the development of malignancy. Moreover, malignant prostate tissue virtually never retains the characteristic high levels of citrate and zinc found in normal peripheral zone. In the absence of high cellular zinc levels, m-aconitase activity is no longer inhibited and citrate oxidation proceeds via the Krebs cycle. Thus we characterize the metabolic transformation as the transformation of zinc-accumulating citrate-oxidizing normal prostate epithelial cells to citrate-oxidizing cells that have lost the ability to accumulate zinc.

Testosterone and zinc

by urfavdmn

Zinc Monomethionine
Chelated Zinc and Methionine
Zinc plays an important role in men’s health. More than 70% of men do not obtain the minimum daily requirement of zinc from their diets.
This mineral is necessary for all aspects of male reproduction, including hormone metabolism and balance, prostate function, and sperm formation and motility.1
Zinc is also crucial to the manufacture and repair of DNA. Its role in strengthening the immune system is rapidly being recognized as critical. Additionally, zinc is an enzyme co-factor that assists the body in absorbing enzymes,
Zinc and Men’s Hormonal Balance
Zinc is one of the most important supplements for men’s health with the highest concentrations in the

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